Nematode the most scary foe for decorative plants, including and Parma Violets.
Nematoda are worms nesegmentati cylindrical, tranlucizi containing the largest ' Kingdom ' of the animal Kingdom. Their length is 1 mm. There are two large groups of nematodes: those that have their Habitat in the environment and parasitic nematodes.
Nematoda in environment soil and ground his propensity to populate. Are some microscopic beings.
Although there are case sensitive, they are found in the ground with hundreds of thousands. 1 kg of soil or mud from the bottom of a river, the nematodes is in the hundreds of thousands.
Every soil substrate, virtually every pot, meet nemtode. Many nematode species that populate the ground are absolutely harmless for decorative plants.
Parasitic nematodes and instead have chosen place of residence inside of animals and plants around the world. A variety of species may be a parasite and Gesneriaceae (on the roots, stems, leaf).
Most nematodes have three stages of life: or, larva and adult. The last two stages are the most harmful to plants. Nematoda, what plants are paraziteaza pathogens with specialized structures that allow them to break cell wall of the plant and to extract the contents of the cell.
Root nematodes have two generations per year.. Populate the surface of the soil and in flower pots with our it. Dsitruge slow and safe plant.
At the first signs of contamination until the death of the plant may take several years.
Nematode species of GHGs – southern Ontario, peanuts and the Javanese nematode can have up to 13 genratii per year. Starting with the second or third generation after contamination of the plant roots, the nematodes root can determine place of residence permanently on contaminated plant throughout its life cycle. And juicy and Gesneriaceae larvae of nematodes will move from the roots to the Crown of the plant.
The main signs of contamination of African violetelor with nematodes:
The Roots: The plant's root system is poorly developed, and the spines on the stem are missing entirely. The roots are boldface, brownish and have fine longitudinal cracks distributed all over.
Beveled surfaces on the root of the plant are quite fragile and watery when touched.
Strain: For the offspring of African violetelor attacked by nematodes it's caractirestic that the stem thickens and becomes a sponge full of water. The strain leaves fragile and thickened roots. The strain of more often than is covered by cracks easily noticed.
Mature plants, the trunk of the plant grow erratically, many kittens appear at the base of the leaves. Herb loses decorativitate, the leaves grow up. The plant rarely without blooms ' shooting of heart '.
The Leaves: Become fluffier than those of healthy plants. The leaves are anemic, lose the dimensions, become watery and petiolii are rather fragile leaf.
If the plant remains contaminated without roots, the leaves closest to the ground lose turgor in even if they are watered properly and regularly.
Plant infestation takes months, and signs of contamination of the plant with nematodes are detected too late, When the whole collection is contaminated.
A diagnosis can be obtained only in case of microscopic research of the plant contaminated.
It will take pieces of the roots and stem of the plant, who will take on a glass slide with a drop of water. It will push the easy pieces taken a less blunt object so that the plant tissues to crack and spread. Gradually, plant pieces we terciui. You want bigger pieces and cover with the tab ' mushy ' obtained. If under the microscope one can see worms and larvae of nematodes, females with pear shaped body, then the diagnosis is clear – nematodoza.
Treating contaminated plants from a collection is impossible. In fighting nematodes first step consists in preventing their spread:.
Preventive measures are:
1. The prevention of the spreading of nematodes in the collection of the violets,;
2. The prevention of the spreading of nematodes in the collection of the violet on the inside.
The prevention of the spreading of nematodes in the collection of the violets,:
The nematodes can penetrate the plant collection with the substrate of the Earth, Sand River, dust, hands dirty after cleaning vegetables. May be placed in collection and ferns contaminated from other amateurs.
In places, where once there were planted strawberries, wild strawberries, Raspberry, vegetables (cucumber, Onion, sugar-beet) pathogenic nematodes will be in excess.
Following, will never plant the African violets in the soil of the camp, Garden or greenhouse. In cases when there is no other situation, the soil will be heat processed. In order to avoid the appearance of the plants planted toxicosis, the soil will be heat processed at least one month.
Flower pots for sale or those in which were planted sometime will sanitize the plant.
Colectionerul of African violets will thoroughly study the roots of plants that have been in its collection.
Chickens, mature plants, fresh leaves obtained will stay in quarantine or segregated from other plant.
The prevention of the spreading of nematodes in the collection of the violet on the inside:
The larvae and eggs of nematodes can spread through the bulgarasi of the Earth, dust, the use of repeated ghivecelor and farfuriutelor, the water that drips from the infected village in farfuriuta pot.
Repeated use of the soil is not allowed. Flower pots and farfuriutele, that have never been used to wash and sterilize.
The most effective way of prevention – each plant will be underneath a farfuriuta.
If the plant is contaminated with nematodes, will perform the following steps:
– contaminated plants throw all and immediately;
– all the plants that have a farfuriuta with a herb ill throw;
– all the plants in the collection are made in deep and individual farfuriute.
Watering system with fuse, in individual containers prevents migration of nematodes. It remains only to sterilize the containers in which they were planted, put plants and avoid reusing soil or its combination with a substrate of Earth.
– Flower Pots, labels, farfuriutele, After each use to sterilize.
– Drainage and Earth were planted flower throw;
– Each planting purple will be achieved on a single newspaper, bag. The Earth is going to get out of the bag with the Earth with a clean container and ata as it is necessary to plant a purple.
– In the case of a potted violets, do not touch with your hands the roots and the soil in which it was planted. If the roots, the strain shows signs of contamination, soil, Herb, the newspaper throw and wash hands with SOAP. Before the next plant to plant all the steps are repeated (new newspaper, sol. ..).
Save unique varieties:
The larvae of nematodes for root moves with ease on the stems and leaves of succulent plants-Begonias, cacti, Gesneriaceae.
Cuttings from the plant contaminated, most likely, will be contaminated and they.
In cases when it was contaminated by a plant from a single variety, It will take cuttings. It will take the youngest leaves, and they will cut ribbed rachides underneath leaf. As it is short-so it's less likely this nematodes. Each Alberta will plant in individual container. Cuttings will throw after the appearance of the first healthy chicken.